The 2011 recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedules have been approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy of Family Physicians (schedules have been provided following this article and online as Supplemental Information). These schedules are revised annually to reflect current recommendations for use of vaccines licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration and include the following changes from last year:
- Guidance for administration of the hepatitis B vaccine series for children who did not receive the recommended birth dose. A minimum age for dose 3 of hepatitis B vaccine has been added to the catch-up schedule, noting that the final (third or fourth) dose in the hepatitis B series should be administered no earlier than 24 weeks of age.
- Information on the use of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). A PCV series begun with 7-valent PCV (PCV7) should be completed with PCV13. A single supplemental dose of PCV13 is recommended for all children 14 through 59 months of age who have received an age-appropriate series of PCV7. A single supplemental dose of PCV13 is recommended for all children 60 through 71 months of age with underlying medical conditions who have received an age-appropriate series of PCV7. The supplemental dose of PCV13 should be administered at least 8 weeks after the previous dose of PCV7. A single dose of PCV13 may be administered to children 6 through 18 years of age who have functional or anatomic asplenia, HIV infection or other immunocompromising conditions, cochlear implant, or cerebrospinal fluid leak. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) should be administered to children 2 years of age or older with certain underling medical conditions at least 8 weeks after the last dose of PCV. A single revaccination with the PPSV should be administered after 5 years to children with functional or anatomic asplenia or an immunocompromising condition.
- Guidance for administration of 1 or 2 doses of influenza vaccine on the basis of the child’s history of receipt of monovalent 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Administer 2 doses (separated by at least 4 weeks) to children 6 months through 8 years of age who are receiving influenza vaccine for the first time or who were vaccinated for the first time during the previous influenza season but only received 1 dose. Children 6 months through 8 years of age who received no doses of monovalent 2009 H1N1 vaccine or in whom the dosing schedule is unknown should receive 2 doses of 2010 –2011 seasonal influenza vaccine.
- Guidance regarding a booster dose of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4). Adolescents should be routinely immunized, preferably at 11 through 12 years, with a booster dose at 16 years of age. Adolescents who receive their first dose at 13 through 15 years of age should receive a booster at 16 through 18 years of age. For people 2 through 54 years of age who are at increased risk of meningococcal disease, a 2-dose primary series should be administered 2 months apart. For information regarding immunization of older adolescents and adults, see the adult immunization schedule at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/provisional/default.htm.